This game, which is very popular in India and Pakistan, has several names. The name Court Piece is sometimes written as Coat Piece or Coat Pees, Pees being a Hindi word meaning to deal. In Pakistan this game is often known as Rang or Rung, which means trump. In some places, for example in Goa, it is called Seven Hands: in India the English word "hand" is sometimes used to mean a "trick" - i.e. one card played to the table by each player in turn, these cards being won by the player of the highest card.
The dealer shuffles and the player to dealer's right, known as the "trump-caller", cuts. The dealer deals a batch of five cards to each player. The trump-caller player looks at his or her five cards and (without communication with any other player) chooses and announces the trump suit. Then the dealer deals out all the remaining cards in batches of four, so that everyone has 13 cards.
The player to dealer's right leads any card to the first trick. Players must follow suit if possible: if unable they may play any card. When all four players have contributed a card the player of the highest card of the suit that was led wins the trick unless one or more cards of the trump suit were played, in which case the highest trump wins. The player who won the trick leads any card to the next trick.
Some play that the trump caller, instead of announcing the trump suit, chooses it by selecting a card from the first five dealt and placing it on the table separately from his or her other cards. The trump-caller may decide not to choose a trump suit from the first five cards dealt. In this case, trumps are determined by turning over one card at random from the second batch of cards dealt to the trump caller.
Some play that the card indicating the trump suit is kept face down, so that the players other than the trump caller do not know what the trump suit will be. In this version of the game, there are no trumps until the trump indicator card is revealed. A player who is unable to follow suit may ask for the trump to be shown: in this case the trump indicator card is turned face up and then returned to the owner's hand, and the player who asked must play a trump if possible. The trump caller may choose to reveal his own trump card if unable to follow suit or when on lead, in which case he must play a trump. From the moment that the trump indicator card is revealed its suit becomes trumps, but cards of that suit played before the indicator card was revealed do not count as trumps unless the trump suit was led. This can result in a lower card beating a higher card of the same suit if the suit was revealed as trump after the higher card was played - see examples under Hidden Rung.
Some play that the trump indicator card is selected at random from the first player's first five cards without looking, so that even this player does not know what the trump suit will be until the card is revealed.
The deal, choice of trumps and rules of play are the same as in Court Piece, but in this variant, a player who wins a trick does not gather in the cards, but turns the cards of the trick face down in the centre of the table. Cards are only gathered in when the same player wins two consecutive tricks. Until then the tricks pile up in the centre.
Some play that the trump caller, if unwilling to choose a suit on the basis of five cards, can specify some later card such as the 7th or the 10th. The dealer then completes the deal, turning the specified card face up, and its suit is trumps.
In this variant the dealer deals all thirteen cards and the play begins without trumps until some player is unable to follow suit. As soon as a player cannot follow suit, the suit of the card they play instead becomes trump for the rest of the deal. No tricks can be collected until the trick after the one in which trumps are determined (but if the same player wins the trump determining trick and the following one, that player's team collects all the tricks played up to this point).
In this Double Sir variant the first player chooses trumps from the first five cards dealt by placing a card of the trump suit face down without telling the other players what it is. A player who is unable to follow suit may ask for the trump to be revealed and must then play a trump to the trick if possible.
If the player who chose trump is unable to follow suit, he or she may either reveal the trump and play a trump card (not necessarily the revealed card) or may play a card of another suit face down, so as not to give any clue about the suit chosen as trumps. The trump maker may choose to reveal the trump when leading, and in that case a trump must be led.
If a suit other than trumps was led, the chosen suit becomes trumps at the moment when the trump card is revealed. That may sometimes result in a lower card beating a higher card of the same suit. Example. Player 1 leads the A, player 2 follows suit with the 5 and player 3 discards the 6 having no hearts. Player 4 also has no hearts and asks for the trump to be revealed. Player 2 reveals a diamond and player 4 trumps with the 3. Player 4 wins the trick: the 3 of diamonds beats the 6 of diamonds, because the 6 was not a trump at the time when it was played.
However, if the trump suit turns out to be the suit that was led, the highest card of that suit wins even if the suit was revealed in the middle of the trick. For example player 1 leads the A, player 2 has no spades and asks the trump maker (player 4) to reveal the trump. Player 4 shows the 7, and player 2 throws the 3. Player 3 follows suit with the 5 and player 4 plays the 7. Player 1 wins the trick: since the chosen suit was led, the Ace wins even though it was not known to be a trump at the time when it was played.
In order to claim the tricks from the centre of the table a player needs to win two consecutive tricks after the trump suit has been revealed. No tricks can be claimed at the end of the 1st, 2nd or 12th trick. From the 3rd to the 11th trick inclusive, if the trick is won by the same player that won the previous trick, and the winning card of the previous trick was played after the trump had been revealed, the player's team collects all the tricks from the centre of the table.
A trick-taking game is a card or tile-based game in which play of a hand centers on a series of finite rounds or units of play, called tricks, which are each evaluated to determine a winner or taker of that trick. The object of such games then may be closely tied to the number of tricks taken, as in plain-trick games such as contract bridge, whist, and spades, or to the value of the cards contained in taken tricks, as in point-trick games such as pinochle, the tarot family, briscola, and most evasion games like hearts. Trick-and-draw games are trick-taking games in which the players can fill up their hands after each trick. In most variants, players are free to play any card into a trick in the first phase of the game, but must follow suit as soon as the stock is depleted. Trick-avoidance games like reversis or polignac are those in which the aim is to avoid taking some or all tricks.
The earliest card games were trick-taking games (as evidenced by the rank-and-suit structure) originating from China and spreading westwards during the early part of the second millennium. Michael Dummett noted that these games share various features. They were played without trumps, following suit was not required but only the highest card of the suit led wins, rotation was counter-clockwise, they were plain-trick games, and that the pip cards of one or more suit are in reverse order so that the lower cards beat the higher ones. Two revolutions occurred in European trick-taking games that would lead to the development of ever more sophisticated card games. The first is the invention of trumps (and following suit to contain their power) in the 15th century. The second was bidding in the 17th century.
The invention of bidding for a trump suit is credited to Ombre, the most popular card game of the 17th century. Rather than having a randomly selected trump suit, players can now hold an auction for it. The most popular games of the 18th-century was tarot which experienced a great revival. During this time, many tarot games borrowed bidding over the stock (Taroc l'Hombre). In the 20th century, Whist (now with bidding and the dummy hand) developed into contract bridge, the last global trick-taking game.
The practice of counting tricks (in plain-trick games) may have originated in the counting of cards won in tricks. It was therefore a logical development to accord some cards a higher counting-value, and some cards no value at all, leading to point-trick games. Point-trick games are at least as old as tarot decks and may even predate the invention of trumps. Elfern and Fünfzehnern are possible candidates, although the earliest references date to the 19th century. Nearly all point-trick games are played with tarot decks or stripped decks, which in many countries became standard before 1600. Neither point-trick games nor stripped decks have a tradition in England.
In contrast to Europe, Chinese trick-taking games did not develop trumps or bidding. They diverged into multi-trick games where melds can only be beaten by other melds provided they have the same number of cards. During the Qing dynasty, these multi-trick games evolved into the earliest draw-and-discard games where the players' objective is to form melds and "go out" rather than capturing the opponents' cards. Khanhoo is an example of a multi-trick game that became a draw-and-discard game. Multi-trick games are also probably the source for climbing games like Winner and dou dizhu, which first appeared during the Cultural Revolution. 2b1af7f3a8
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