Activists need to become aware of the roles they and their organizations are playing in the larger social movement. There are four different roles activists and social movements need to play in order to successfully create social change: the citizen, rebel, change agent, and reformer. Each role has different purposes, styles, skills, and needs and can be played effectively or ineffectively.
The concept of citizenship is and always has been a fluid and contestable set of ideas and practices. The history of citizenship is not linear. Historically, as today, there has never been a single definition of citizenship. The identity of the citizen has also been a source of continuing tension. Citizenship has always included some people while excluding others.
Is citizenship defined fundamentally by the possession of rights, liberties and privileges? Or is it primarily about responsibilities and duties? Are political engagement and popular activism the essence of citizenship? Or is obedience its defining feature? Is there a difference between being a subject and being a citizen?
These ideas were explored in events held in Durham in 2015 and 2017 to mark the 800th anniversary of the 1215 Magna Carta and the 1217 Charter of the Forest. A historical perspective demonstrates how and why there is a thin line between the citizen and the rebel.
Citizens are humans living under Combine rule, after the Seven Hour War and subsequent Combine occupation. The term "Citizen" refers specifically to a human living under Combine rule in a city, as opposed to a rebel or refugee. Over the course of the Half-Life 2 storyline, vast swathes of the citizen population ultimately come to join the growing resistance to overthrow their interdimensional overlords and restore Earth's freedom.
The Combine also established the Civil Protection force. Staffed by unmodified humans, as opposed to the transhuman Overwatch, Civil Protection acts as the Combine's police force and handles the affairs of policing and monitoring the populace in the cities. Civil Protection officers are feared for their brutality, as they often bully Citizens and administer beatings at the slightest provocation. As seen in Half-Life 2's first chapter, Point Insertion, Civil Protection officers sometimes stage raids on residential buildings to arrest and imprison alleged rebels and sympathizers. Comments made by Citizen onlookers seem to suggest this is a regular occurrence. Citizens are encouraged to join Civil Protection by promises of better rations. Civil Protection officers themselves are encouraged to undergo transhuman surgery to join the ranks of the Overwatch.
Robert Taylor, center, speaks at a St. John the Baptist Parish council meeting in 2017. He and the other members of the citizens' group around him wear T-shirts that reference the safety limit for the chemical chloroprene. Julie Dermansky hide caption
Around that time, "EPA called and said, 'We need to talk about chloroprene,'" remembers Wilma Subra, a chemist and the lead technical adviser for the Louisiana Environmental Action Network, which coordinates environmental and citizen groups across the state. She had been studying epidemiological effects of chloroprene for years, and pushing the EPA to use the IRIS program to do the same.
Come out and cheer the Lady Rebels on December 22 as they challenge #23 Syracuse in a 2:30pm game. UNLV Women's Basketball is hosting a Toy Drive and Senior Citizen Appreciation Day. Fans can get $4 tickets with a toy donation while senior citizens age 55+ get in FREE by showing ID at ticketing window. All toys collected will be donated to the Boys & Girls Club. Fans can also get in FREE to the game with proof of the men's basketball ticket for that same evening.
Hong Kong citizens are concerned about their increasingly uncertain future and in response have invented new forms of solidarity. Small groups of hyper-connected youth and students have been joined by other segments of the population such as union workers or even expatriates.
In an upcoming book presenting ethnographic research conducted in southern China in the last 12 years, I show that Hong Kong citizens have identified themselves with birds since 1997, the year when the former British colony returned to Chinese sovereignty and when the first cases of the influenza virus H5N1 emerged among humans and birds.
The Hong Kong citizens I met during my research often compared themselves with birds to convey their contradictory feelings of living in tiny apartments like chickens trapped in the cages, and yet being able to escape like migratory birds by flying with planes all over the world. Such an ambivalent identification is clearly visible in the film made in 2008 by Johnnie To , Sparrow.
Following this hypothesis, I suggest that the Hong Kong citizens have reinserted animism within analogism. Similarly, some alternative movements in France, such as the successful struggle against the construction of the Notre-Dame des Landes airport, reinserted animism within naturalism.
When they identify with water, flowers or birds, Hong Kong citizens contest from inside the sacrificial power of Chinese sovereignty. While anthropology is neither a predictive science nor a universalist model, we can bet that their movement has a future, and that it concerns every human being.
The Capitol of Panem is a technologically advanced, utopian city where the nation's most wealthy and powerful citizens live. The Capitol is also the colloquial name for the ruling government of Panem. As the seat of power in Panem, this city rules the nation's thirteen districts (twelve after The Dark Days), organizes and celebrates the Hunger Games inside its city limits (protected by anti-aircraft guns and multiple launch rocket systems, or MLRS's).
It is located in the western, mountainous section of former North America. Proximity to both the mountains to the east and the large body of water to the west suggests it could somewhere be near the location of present-day Salt Lake City, Utah. The Rockies also act as a natural barrier and have served the Capitol well, allowing their air force to bomb the rebels who attempted to invade the city during the Dark Days.
Much is unknown about when the Capitol was first built and developed, but it was noted that a group of some of the most wealthy, powerful, elite citizens of Panem and families came together. One such family included the Phipps family in which was mentioned as one of the founding members of the Capitol. Eventually over time, more wealthy families and citizens came together, as the Snow and Crane family were both noted to be a part of an elite circle of an old guard of the wealthy from the Capitol.
It's presumed that many Capitol residents have made a life into the Capitol due to their immense wealth, privilege and power from the districts. Capitol residents are the most elite citizens of Panem, and have been mentioned to have the most vital and important occupations throughout the nation. The Moss family works in the agriculture department, the Creed family works with timber in District 7, the Crane family on transportation and travel, owning assets of hotels within District 10 and the Snow family owning laboratories within District 13. Thus, many Capitol residents are descendants of the most wealthy citizens within the outer districts. Citizens from the districts were still eligible for citizenship within the advanced city up to right after the first rebellion, as the Plinth family had earned a life in total wealth and power by deciding to side with the Capitol during the war within District 2.
Although much is unknown as to what notable events had transpired during the majority of the rebellion, it's mentioned by Snow that during the first year, Snow's grandmother sang the national anthem of Panem whilst bombs were shooting down on the city. During the last two years of the war, the rebels had successfully managed to cut off vital food supplies of the Capitol. As such, this led to starvation and poverty of the Capitol citizens, as many families had to sell their goods including furniture and clothing to the black market to scrape by. In rare instances even, had led some citizens including Nero Price, a wealthy man who was widely considered a titan of the railroad industry to resort to cannibalism. At some point, District 5 managed to overtake the bomb warning alarm system of the Capitol, and managed to give out fake threats, effectively dealing more damage when actual attacks were lead into the city.
At some unknown point in the midst of the rebellion, rabies had managed to spread into the Capitol. With doctors, facilities and supply lines badly affected by bombing prior, the likelihood of citizens getting treatment overall for any illnesses was rather low. Snow theorized that the virus strain most likely came from a coyote from the mountains, starved dogs or bats. Due to the poor level of healthcare, the virus strain developed at an unprecedented speed, killing over a dozen capitol citizens before being brought under control by a vaccine.
By the end of the rebellion, the Capitol had managed a victory against the rebels when they attempted to scale the mountains that serve as natural protection for the city. Effectively, due to their superior air force, the Capitol forces have managed to deal great damage to rebel forces, giving them an upper hand in the rebellion.
Many Capitol residents are extremely shallow, always looking for ways to be noticed. An outrageous sense of style and fashion are very important to the citizens of the Capitol. It is common for them to tattoo and dye their bodies in extravagant bright colors, as well as undergo plastic surgery to alter their appearances. Known results of the surgeries are whiskers, dyed skin, talons, decorative patterns cut into their skin, and more outrageous fashions alluded to but not mentioned. These alterations are done so heavily that Katniss describes them as disfiguring, wondering if the people of the Capitol realize how horrifying they look to the rest of Panem. Some people of the Capitol also have gems implanted in their skin. Capitol residents frequently wear wigs in a multitude of colors. In The Hunger Games, when Katniss and Peeta are talking on the roof the night before their enter to the arena, Peeta admits that it would be hard to tell if they were wearing any fancy costumes, because you might as well mistake their ordinary clothing for a costume. 2b1af7f3a8